A secure browser that protects your privacy is a critical tool for staying safe online and keeping your data secure from third parties. We have been reviewing, testing, and ranking browsers for the past six years and this guide contains the latest recommendations for 2022.
Do you want a secure browser that truly keeps your data private? Well, you may be surprised by how much of your data is actually getting exposed.
WARNING: Many browsers today are actually data collection tools for advertising companies. This is the case for Google Chrome, the largest and most popular browser. By collecting data through your browser, these companies can make money through their advertising partners with targeted ads. We see this same privacy-abusing business model with search engines, email services, and even free mobile apps.
Unless properly configured, most browsers contain lots of private information that can be exploited – or simply collected – by various third parties:
- Browsing history: all the websites you visit
- Login credentials: usernames and passwords
- Cookies and trackers: these are placed on your browser by the sites you visit
- Autofill information: names, addresses, phone numbers, etc.
And as we will explain further below, using “private” or “incognito” browsing will not protect you. Your IP address will remain exposed and various third parties can still track all of your activities. But you don’t even need to take my word for it. Here is a headline that illustrates the lengths companies will go to collect your browsing activities.
And even with a locked-down and hardened browser, there may still be exploits that reveal your data and potential identity. For example, Google Chrome announced a severe zero-day flaw that could allow hackers to remotely execute code on affected systems. We discuss some other privacy issues (and solutions) in our guides on browser fingerprinting and also WebRTC leaks.
But don’t let this stress you out. There are effective solutions and tools that we will cover in detail below. In this browser security and privacy guide, we’re going to explain the following topics:
- Best secure browsers that respect your privacy
- Problems with other browsers
- Browser privacy compartmentalization
- Secure browser add-ons
- “Private browsing” mode is NOT very private (and why you need a VPN)
Incognito / Private browsing mode leaves you exposed
When using “private” or “incognito” browsing mode in your browser, your real IP address and location are still being revealed to every website, ad, and tracker that loads in your browser. Additionally, all your activities remain visible to your internet service provider (ISP). And as we have recently learned, ISPs log everything you do online and share the data with many other parties. This is why it’s critical to use a good VPN for basic digital privacy.
The best way to achieve true privacy while hiding your real IP address and online activities is to use a secure browser together with a good VPN. This will hide your real IP address and location, while also encrypting and anonymizing your traffic so your ISP cannot see your activities online. Here are our top three recommendations from the best VPN list that we have tested and reviewed:
- NordVPN: A fast, secure, audited VPN with advanced privacy features and a strict no-logs policy, based in Panama (with a 68% off coupon).
- Surfshark VPN: A no-logs VPN service with a large lineup of privacy and security features, based in The Netherlands.
- ExpressVPN – This is a secure and reliable VPN that boasts some great privacy features and also works well for streaming. It is based in the British Virgin Islands.
Now let’s examine the most secure browsers that you can combine with a VPN for maximum privacy.
Secure browsers that protect your privacy
In this section we will examine the best browsers based on two main factors:
- Security: How well does the browser protect you from hackers, vulnerabilities, and online exploits?
- Privacy: How much data is the browser itself collecting about you and who is this data being shared with? How does the browser protect your privacy?
Conflicting opinions! Just like with Tor, opinions about browser privacy and security can be wildly divergent and contentious.
This guide is not meant to sell everyone on one browser that beats all others. Rather, it is a summary of information about different web browsers that do well with both privacy and security. Choose the best browser for you based on your own unique needs and threat model.
Here are the most secure and private browsers for 2021:
1. Brave: The most secure and private browser (by default)
Brave is arguably the most secure browser with simple, out-of-the-box privacy. It is a Chromium-based browser that is fast, secure, and privacy-focused by default. It has a built-in ad blocker and browser fingerprinting protection, while also giving you access to numerous add-ons and extensions. The main developer behind Brave is Brandon Eich, who formerly worked for Mozilla.
To summarize this browser, Brave is based on open-source Chromium, but configured for more privacy. It does well with its default privacy settings and extra features. Here is a brief overview:
- Blocks ads and trackers by default
- Protects against browser fingerprinting and even offers fingerprint randomization
- Built-in script blocker
- Blocks all third-party storage
- Automatically upgrades to HTTPS (HTTPS Everywhere)
- Easy access to the Tor network
One of the reasons we like Brave is because it offers simple, out-of-the-box privacy by default. This makes it ideal for those who do not have the time, patience, or know-how for browser customizations and tinkering. Brave can also be used with Chrome extensions, making it an ideal alternative for Chrome. Just download it and you’re good to go.
Tor network – Brave also has a feature that allows you to access the Dark web by simply opening a new window with Tor. We discuss this feature in our guide on how to access the Dark web safely.
Ads – Brave has received some criticism for its ads program, which allows users to “view non-invasive ads without compromising your privacy.” While some people find it hypocritical that a privacy-focused browser has its own ad program, we also see it as a secure source of funding. And with many browsers financially struggling, it appears that Brave’s business model is securing this browser’s future and ability to continue to innovate its products.
As one example of these innovations, Brave is currently developing a private search engine called Brave Search. Additionally, Brave continues to improve and innovate with its browser, which is growing in popularity.
You can read more about Brave’s privacy features here.
2. Firefox (modified and tweaked for privacy)
Firefox is a great all-around browser for privacy and security. It offers strong privacy protection features, many customization options, excellent security, and regular updates with an active development team. The newest version of Firefox is fast and lightweight with many privacy customization options.
Out of the box, Firefox is not the best for privacy, but it can be customized and hardened, and we show you exactly how in our Firefox privacy modifications guide. Be sure to disable telemetry in Firefox, which is a feature that will collect “technical and interaction data” and also “install and run studies” within your browser.
Within the Privacy & Security settings area, there are many useful customization options for different levels of privacy: Standard, Strict, or Custom.
Another great benefit with Firefox is the ability to use numerous browser extensions that can enhance your privacy and security. We’ll go over some of these extensions further below.
- Open source code that has been independently audited
- Active development with frequent updates
- Excellent privacy features and customization options
- Many browser extensions supported
- Telemetry and tracking needs to be manually disabled
- Other modifications necessary for extra privacy and security
If you want to keep using older add-ons that are no longer supported by the latest Firefox release, you can go with the Firefox Extended Support Release (ESR). If you want a privacy-focused version of Firefox for Android, you could try Firefox focus.
For additional customization and privacy settings, check out our Firefox privacy guide.
3. Tor browser
Next up we have the Tor browser. The Tor browser is a hardened version of Firefox that is configured to run on the Tor network. By default, the Tor Browser is a secure browser that protects you against browser fingerprinting, but it also has some disadvantages.
Because it uses the Tor network, which routes traffic over three different hops, download speeds with the Tor browser can be quite slow. The default version may also break some sites due to script blocking. Finally, there are also drawbacks with the Tor network itself, including malicious/dangerous exit nodes, high latency, dependence on US government financing, and some consider it to be fundamentally compromised. There are also many websites that block IP addresses originating from the Tor network. (See the pros and cons of Tor here.)
Another option is to use the Tor browser with the Tor network disabled. In this sense, the Tor browser will work like the other browsers we’ve covered above. Additionally, you can simply run a VPN in the background. Like the Tor network, a VPN will also encrypt your traffic and hide your IP, but it will be much faster.
Be careful when adjusting the settings for the Tor browser, however, as this may compromise the browser’s built-in privacy and security features.
4. Ungoogled Chromium browser
Ungoogled Chromium is an open source project to provide a Chromium browser, without the Google privacy issues:
ungoogled-chromium is Google Chromium, sans dependency on Google web services. It also features some tweaks to enhance privacy, control, and transparency (almost all of which require manual activation or enabling).
ungoogled-chromium retains the default Chromium experience as closely as possible. Unlike other Chromium forks that have their own visions of a web browser, ungoogled-chromium is essentially a drop-in replacement for Chromium.
Ungoogled Chromium receives regular Chromium security updates.
5. Bromite (Android)
Bromite is a Chromium-based browser for Android only (no desktop support). It comes with some great features by default, including ad blocking and various privacy enhancements. Here are some highlights of this browser from the official Bromite website:
- The main goal is to provide a no-clutter browsing experience without privacy-invasive features and with the addition of a fast ad-blocking engine.
- Minimal UI changes are applied to help curbing the idea of “browser as an advertisement platform”.
- All patches are published under GNU/GPL v3 to enable other open source projects’ usage.
- Bromite is only available for Android Lollipop (v5.0, API level 21) and above.
Another cool feature I like with Bromite is that you can use custom ad block filters — learn more here. Bromite is under active development and remains a great browser for Android users.
6. DuckDuckGo privacy browser (iOS and Android)
The DuckDuckGo privacy browser is a new addition to our lineup. This browser is available for mobile devices on iOS and Android and comes with lots of privacy-focused features by default. According to this blog post, DuckDuckGo’s browser offers:
- Built-in tracking protection
- Encryption upgrades via Smarter Encryption technology
- Easy data management and clearing options
- Fast speeds
Private browsers worth mentioning
Below are a few private and secure browsers that are worth mentioning. However, these browsers did not quite make the cut to be recommended, for various reasons listed below.
Waterfox is a fork of Firefox that was maintained by just one person for many years. In February 2020, news blew up on reddit that it had sold out to a pay-per-click ad company called System1. The news was also picked up by others, which resulted in Waterfox and System1 formally announcing the acquisition (but only after the news broke).
The problem here is the apparent contradiction of an ad company (that relies on data collection) owning a privacy-focused browser. As I previously reported, System1 also acquired a stake in Startpage, the private search engine based in The Netherlands. In researching the company’s background, it appears that System1 is fundamentally in the business of data collection:
“In our business,” Blend adds, “if we can gather as much data as possible, give it off to our engineers and data scientists, and then manage the two effectively, the business can quickly scale.”
So can Waterfox still be trusted now that it’s owned by an ad-tech company? You can be the judge.
8. Pale Moon
Pale Moon is another open-source fork of Firefox, which aims for efficiency and customization. In testing out Pale Moon, it does offer different customization options, as well as support for older Firefox add-ons and its own lineup of add-ons. The design feels a bit dated, but it’s also not overly-cluttered and is lightweight and fast.
Pale Moon is currently available on Windows and Linux, with other operating systems in development. Unlike other Firefox forks, Pale Moon runs on its own browser engine, Goanna, which is a fork of Gecko (used by Firefox). This is an older engine that was previously used by Firefox, but has long since been replaced. Many argue that this older codebase is a security vulnerability. And it’s also worth noting that the development team is very small compared to more popular browsers.
9. GNU IceCat
GNU IceCat is a fork of Firefox from the GNU free software project. IceCat is entirely “free software” as defined here and also includes various privacy add-ons and tweaks by default. Here are the privacy-protection features listed from the IceCat page:
- Fingerprinting countermeasures
Slow updates – The big issue with GNU IceCat is that updates are very slow, and in some cases, years behind. This can expose IceCat users to security vulnerabilities, which is why we are no longer recommending it.
Like Brave, Iridium is a secure browser that is based on Chromium and configured for more privacy by default. The following excerpt from Iridium’s website provides a good overview of this secure browser:
Iridium Browser is based on the Chromium code base. All modifications enhance the privacy of the user and make sure that the latest and best secure technologies are used. Automatic transmission of partial queries, keywords and metrics to central services is prevented and only occurs with the approval of the user. In addition, all our builds are reproducible and modifications are auditable, setting the project ahead of other secure browser providers.
Unfortunately, like IceCat above, updates to Iridium are few and far between.
Issues with other popular browsers
While some browsers claim to be secure against vulnerabilities, they might not be the best choice from a privacy perspective.
1. Google Chrome
Google Chrome is by far the most popular browser. Unfortunately, it’s a data collection tool as well and not a good choice for anyone looking for privacy.
You can safely assume that everything you do through Google Chrome is collected, saved to your data profile, and used for targeted advertising.
2. Microsoft Internet Explorer/Edge
Edge is a Microsoft product.
Just like with Windows, it’s a good idea to avoid Microsoft products, including Internet Explorer, and their newer browser called Edge. Internet Explorer and Edge are also closed-source, so there’s no telling what’s going on behind the scenes, and they’re also not the best for privacy reasons.
3. Opera browser
Opera also claims to offer a free VPN through the browser. However, as we covered in the Opera VPN review, it’s not really a VPN and does not offer full system-wide encryption. Additionally, your data is being collected when you use Opera browser and its “free VPN” feature.
4. Epic browser
Epic is a browser based on Chromium, created by “Hidden Reflex” which is based in India. Since 2014, Epic has been claiming they would open source the code, but it remains closed source today. What’s going on behind the scenes? How do they manage Chromium and remove invasive code? Who knows.
One person who analyzed Epic found it to be connecting to Google on startup. This suggests that Epic is not, in fact, de-googled as it claims.
There are many better Chromium-based browsers to consider.
5. Safari browser
Safari is the default browser for Mac OS and iOS devices. Overall, Safari is not a horrible choice in terms of privacy and tracking protection – but it also cannot be recommended for a few reasons:
- Apple is a partner in the PRISM surveillance program
- Apple was caught “hoarding” Safari browsing history – even after it was deleted
- Apple was found to be collecting Safari history even when used in private mode
On a positive note, however, Apple does somewhat better with privacy than other large companies. The Safari browser blocks third-party cookies by default and also implements cross-site tracking protection.
6. Vivaldi browser
When you install Vivaldi browser (“Vivaldi”), each installation profile is assigned a unique user ID that is stored on your computer. Vivaldi will send a message using HTTPS directly to our servers located in Iceland every 24 hours containing this ID, version, cpu architecture, screen resolution and time since last message. We anonymize the IP address of Vivaldi users by removing the last octet of the IP address from your Vivaldi client then we store the resolved approximate location after using a local geoip lookup. The purpose of this collection is to determine the total number of active users and their geographical distribution.
You can read more about Vivaldi here, although it’s not recommended for privacy reasons.
Secure and private browsers on mobile devices
Many of the recommended browsers above also offer versions for mobile users on iOS and Android.
With that being said, here some good options for mobile users:
- Firefox Focus
I also like using standard Firefox on mobile devices with customization and configurations for more privacy.
Browser privacy and compartmentalization
One problem that often comes with browser privacy and security is that people want to remain logged in to various accounts, while also browsing the web. But this is problematic. When you stay logged in to Gmail or Facebook, for example, their trackers can record your activity as you browse the web.
One potential solution to this problem is browser compartmentalization. This is when you use different web browsers for different online activities. For example:
- Browser #1 will only be used for accessing your online accounts that require a password. You can stay logged in with only this browser, and it won’t be used for general browsing.
- Browser #2 will only be used for web browsing, with various privacy configurations and no cookies or history being stored on the browser.
- Browser #3 could be completely locked down for maximum privacy and security.
You can also utilize different browsers, configured exactly the way you want, for various purposes, depending on your needs and threat model. The key is to keep the compartmentalization strict and not break the rules/uses for each browser.
Virtual machines – On the topic of compartmentalization, using virtual machines is also a good idea for both privacy and security. You can easily run Linux VMs through VirtualBox (FOSS) on your host computer.
Password managers – It should also be noted that storing your passwords in the browser may be risky depending on the browser you are using, especially since browsers may store passwords in cleartext. A better alternative would be to utilize a secure password manager. We have reviewed many popular options, including Bitwarden, Dashlane, LastPass, and more.
Browser add-ons for security and privacy
In addition to adjusting the settings within your browser, there are also a number of different add-ons or extensions you can install to improve your browser’s privacy and security.
Here are a few different options, but they may not all be supported by the browser you are using:
- uBlock Origin – This is one of the best browser-based ad blockers available that will also protect you against tracking.
- HTTPS Everywhere – An add-on from the folks at Electronic Frontier Foundation, this will force websites to use a secure HTTPS encrypted connection (when available).
- Cookie Autodelete – This will automatically delete cookies that are no longer needed from your browser.
- NoScript – NoScript allows you to customize exactly which scripts run on the websites you visit. Like uMatrix, this is for advanced users and requires lots of customization.
Warning: Be cautious about using third-party add-ons and browser extensions. Do your research first, since add-ons could function as spyware and data collection tools for third parties. This is especially true with free VPN services or browser proxy add-ons, even if they are highly rated in the Google Play or Apple stores.
“Private” or “Incognito” browsing mode is NOT private (and why you need a VPN)
Many people falsely assume that using “private” or “incognito” mode in a browser actually provides some privacy. This is a false assumption.
Using “private” browsing mode only stops your browser from storing cookies, history, and passwords. But it doesn’t actually make you any more “private” to the outside world. Even when browsing in “private” or “incognito” mode, you are still exposed:
- Your internet provider can still see every site you visit. And note that internet providers are now forced to log web browsing activity of their customers and provide this data to authorities on request in many countries. In the United States, ISPs log everything and share the data with a huge network of third parties.
- Your real IP address and location remain exposed to all sites, ads, and trackers. This makes tracking and identification easy since your device has a unique IP address linked back to your identity through your internet service provider.
To easily solve these problems, we strongly recommend using a good VPN service. Using a VPN is simple. You just need to sign up for a VPN subscription, download the VPN app for your device, then connect to a VPN server and browse the web as normal. This offers many benefits:
- A VPN will securely encrypt your internet traffic, which prevents your ISP from seeing what you do online. (Your ISP will only see encrypted data, but not what you’re actually up to.)
- When you connect to a VPN server, the VPN server’s IP address and location will replace your real IP address and location. This allows you to appear to be anywhere in the world.
- A VPN will also allow you to access geo-restricted content, such as streaming Netflix with a VPN from anywhere in the world.
Below is a brief overview of our recommended VPNs that have come out on top in testing for the respective VPN reviews.
- NordVPN: A fast, secure, audited VPN with advanced privacy features and a strict no-logs policy, based in Panama (with a 68% discount coupon). See our NordVPN review here.
- Surfshark VPN: A no-logs VPN service with a large lineup of privacy and security features, based in The Netherlands. See the Surfshark VPN review.
- ExpressVPN – A fast, reliable, and secure VPN that also works well for streaming, but with above-average prices. See the ExpressVPN review for the pros and cons.
Short on money? There are also some good cheap VPNs that offer excellent features and performance, without breaking the bank.
Conclusion on secure browsers and privacy
A well-configured secure browser is crucial for protecting your data as you browse the web with privacy.
Finding the best secure browser all comes down to identifying the best fit for your unique needs. Since this is a personal decision with subjective criteria, I tend to avoid recommending only one option for all use cases.
In addition to using a secure browser that is configured to protect your privacy, you should also consider using a good ad blocker. Ads function as tracking to collect your browsing data and serve you targeted ads. If you aren’t blocking ads, your activities can be tracked by third-party advertising networks, with any site hosting ads.
Other roundup guides on RestorePrivacy:
- Secure Email Services
- Private Search Engines
- Password Managers
- Ad Blockers
- Best VPN Services
- Best Cloud Storage
- Best Secure Messaging Services
This secure browser guide was last updated on December 28, 2021.